Ethiopia is a multi-party federal democracy with legislative authority resting with the government headed by an executive prime minister and the elected House of Representatives (547 members) and the House of Federation (110 members). The Prime Minister is chosen by the party in power following multi-party democratic national and federal state elections which are held every five years. Parties can be registered at either the national or the federal state level. The President is elected by the members of the House of People's Representatives.

President:Dr. Mulatu Teshome

Prime Minister:Hailemariam Desalegn

Speaker of the House of People's Representatives:Abadula Gemeda

Cabinet (November 2012):

  • Demeke Mekonnen, Deputy Prime Minister
  • Siraj Fegessa - Minister of National Defense
  • Kassa Tekleberhan - Minister of Federal and Pastoralist Development Affairs
  • Dr. Tedros Adhanom - Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Getachew Ambaye - Minister of Justice
  • Aster Mammo - Minister of Public Service and Human Resource Development (with rank of deputy PM)
  • Abdulaziz Mohammed - Minister of Finance and Economic Cooperation
  • Tefera Deribew - Minister of Agriculture and Natural Resources
  • Sileshi Getahun - Minister of Livestock and Fisheries
  • Ahmed Abitew - Minister of Industry
  • Yakob Yala - Minister of Trade
  • Abiy Ahmed - Minister of Science and Technology
  • Workneh Gebeyehu - Minister of Transport

  • Dr. Debretsion Gebremichael - Minister of Communications and Information Technology (with rank of deputy PM)
  • Mekuria Haile - Minister of Urban Development and Housing
  • Dr. Ambachew Mekonnen - Minister of Construction
  • Motuma Mekasa - Minister of Water, Irrigation and Electricity
  • Tolosa Shagi- Minister of Mines, Petroleum and Natural Gas
  • Dr. Shiferaw Teklemariam - Minister of Environment, Forest Development and Climate Change
  • Demitu Hambissa - Minister of Public Enterprises
  • Shiferaw Shigute - Minister of Education
  • Dr. Keseteberhan Admasu - Minister of Health
  • Abdulfetah Abdulahi - Minister of Labor and Social Affairs
  • Engineer Aysha Mohammed - Minister of Culture and Tourism
  • Zenebu Tadesse - Minister of Women and Children Affairs
  • Redwan Hussein - Minister of Youth and Sports

The last federal and national elections were held in 2010 and were won by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front. The regional states (killil) elect their own Regional State Councils chosen from among their members. The State Councils also designate members for the House of Federation.

Region Seats Results
Oromia 178 EPRDF
Amhara 138 EPRDF 137 APDO 1
Tigray 38 EPRDF
Addis Ababa 23 EPRDF 22 FORUM 1
Afar 8 ANDP
Benishangul Gumuz 9 BGPDP
Gambella 3 GPUDM
Dire Dawa 2 EPRDF 1 SPDP 1
Harari 2 EPRDF 1 HNL 1
Somali 24 SPDP

ANDP - Afar National Democratic Party; APDO- Argoba People Democratic Organization; BGPDP – Benishangul-Gumuz People's Democratic Party; Forum - Ethiopian Federal Democratic Unity Forum (Medrek); GPUDM – Gambella Peoples Unity Democratic Movement; HNL - Harari National League; SPDM –Somali People's Democratic Movement. The EPRDF - the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Party, is a coalition of the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), the Oromo People's Democratic Organization (OPDO), the Tigrai People's Liberation Front (TPLF) and the Southern Ethiopian Peoples' Democratic Front (SEPDF).
The EPRDF won 499 of the 547 federal parliamentary seats, with 38 seats in Tigray, 137 in Amhara, 178 in Oromia, 122 in South Ethiopia Peoples State and 22 seats in Addis Ababa. Allied parties won 8 seats in Afar states, 9 seats in Benishangul Gumuz, 3 seats in Gambella State and 23 seats in Somali State. The EPRDF also won one seat in each of Harari state and the Dire Dawa City Administration. The opposition Forum won one seat in Addis Ababa; an independent candidate won a seat in the South Ethiopia Peoples State.

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